The long term trends around resource supply and consumption can be described through four investment themes:

Rapidly growing demand for resources

Driven by an expanding global population and rising standards of living and urbanisation, particularly in (populous) developing markets

Limitations to cost-effective resource supply

Higher marginal costs of production for many key resources, e.g., oil, rare earth minerals

Inadequate infrastructure

Greater demand for new infrastructure in developing economies alongside repair and replacement in developed economies

Environmental constraints

Limits on clean water availability, rising exposure to flooding, contaminated air, soil pollution, and growing impacts from climate change against a backdrop of ever stricter environmental policy around the world

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